论文在英汉表达上存在的差异

众所周知,在海外的留学生都知道,海外的生活与中国有着巨大的不同的,不仅仅饮食习惯上有着巨大的区别,生活上的其他方面也有不一样的风格。生活有着差异,学习上也是有着不一样的生活风格,对于每个留学生来说。在海外,学习上的差异往往也会有很多的问题出现。对于留学生经常遇到的在论文表达中的问题,51due论文代写网也是从多个方面跟大家一起来分享需要注意的细节。
有位专家曾做过这样一个实验:他找了两位二十岁左右西班牙小伙子和中国小伙子,让他们在同一时间内用英语写同一篇作文,结果,西班牙小伙子潇潇洒洒地写了五百多字,意思表达基本明了,但拼写语法错误不胜枚举,改动处不多;而中国小伙子只拘谨地写了不到三百字,拼写错误不多,但语法改动不下二十余处,使人难以流畅地阅读。显然,前者只注意思想表达,后者则有很强语法意识———生怕犯语法错误,这种意识在相当程度上影响了思想表达。由此可见,不同社会文化背景人,会有不同思维方式和思维习惯,在学习新语言时,人们会很自然地把这种习惯带到新语言里去,产生这样或那样不良结果。

一、首先,让我们关注一下英美人与中国人思维方式不同。英美人思维方式是直线式,他们在遣词造句谋篇上遵循着从一般(general)到具体(specific),从概括(summarize)到举例(exemplify),从整体(whole)到个体(respective)原则。请看短文:
Soccer is a difficult sport.(1)A player must be able to run steadily without rest.(2)Sometimes a player must hit the ball with his or her head.(3)Players must be willing to bang into and be banged into by others.(4)They must put up with aching feet and sore muscles.
上面这则短文中,主题句(main idea sentence)也就是文章中心是第一句,(1)(2)(3)(4)句是用来说明主题句。
而在汉语中,我们习惯于先分后总,先说原因后说结果,即所谓“前因后果”,如果要表达相同意思,我们通常这样说:
足球运动员必须能不停地奔跑,有时得用头顶球,撞别人或被别人撞,必须忍受双脚和肌肉疼痛,所以说,足球运动是一项难度大运动。
再比如写下面一则便条,因你母亲突然生病,周末你不能和汤姆去跳舞了,你找了舞跳得很好时黛来代替你,并表示抱歉。
此英语便条为:
July 6, 2002
Dear Tom,
I am sorry to inform you that I won’t be able to go to dance with you this weekend. My mother is suddenly takenill. In order not to disappoint you, I have asked Shi Dai to take my place. She is a better dancer, I think. My regrets.
Joe
从便条中可以看出,英语表达先“果”—I won’t be able to go to dance with you this weekend后“因”—my mother is suddenly taken ill,即所谓“先果后因”。
一般来说,在单个句子中,英语句子也是先中心,也就是将主要思想、结果放在句首,放在主句里表达;而汉语正相反,一般为后中心,主要观点、信息往往放在句末。如:
He had to stay at hom e yesterday because he was ill.因为他病了,昨天他不得不呆在家里。
Tragedies can be written in literature since there is tragedy in life. 生活中既然有悲剧,文学作品就可以写悲剧。
所以说,大学生用英文写作时,就要按照英美人思维模式进行思考,也就是说要学会用英语进行思维,避免写出中国式英语。
二、接下来,让我们看一下英汉句子结构特点。英语属印欧语系,汉语属汉藏语系,两种语言相距甚远,英语结构紧凑,汉语结构松散。语言学家以“竹节句法”来比喻英语句子,即英语句子是由断不可缺各种连接词衔接而成,宛如节节相连竹子;而汉语句子则被比喻为“流水句法”,所谓流水指少用乃至不用连接词仍行文流畅。所以说,英语重形和,汉语重意和。英语句子中如果少了连接词如or,but,if,so,because,when,although , in order that,so that,所要表达意思就支离破碎了,而汉语如没连接词,只从句子本身意思就可以把概念或关系表达清楚。如:
Conquer the desires, or they will conquer you. 你如不能战胜欲念,欲念将要战胜你。
An Englishm an who could not speak Chinese was once travelling in China.一个英国人,不会说中国话,有一次在中国旅行。
三、就是因为英语中各种连接词与替代词广泛使用,使得英语中出现“多枝共干”式长句,复合句;汉语则常用短句,简单句。请看下面一个英语长句以及其汉意。
It was on a Sunday evening, when he was lying in the orchard listening to a blackbird and composing a love poem, that he heard thegate swing to,and saw the girl coming running among the trees, with the redcheeked, stolid Joe in swift pursuit.一个星期日傍晚,他正躺在果园里,一面在听画眉鸟啁啾,一面在写一首爱情诗,忽然听得大门砰地关上,接着看见那姑娘从树丛里奔出来,后面飞跟着那呆头呆脑红脸乔。
这是个英语强调句,其重心是:he heard the gate swing to and saw the girl com ing running am ong the trees, 而when he was ly- ing in the orchard listening to a blackbird and com posing a love poem.是一个时间状语从句,这两个句子通过itwas……that……这个强调句型巧妙地合为一个复合长句,整个句子简单明了,结构紧凑,若用汉语表达则须分成好几个短句。再如:
The president said at a conference dominated by questions on yesterday’s election results that he could not explain why the Republicans had suffered such a widespread defeat, which in the end would deprive the Republican Party of long-held superiority in the House.在一次记者招待会上,问题集中于昨天选举结果,总统就此发了言。他说他不能理解为什么共和党遭到了这样大失败。这种情况最终会使共和党失去在众议院长期享有优势。
这个英语长句是由一个带有分词短语主句,两个宾语从句和一个非限制性定语从句组成,整个句子主干简单明了:The pres-identsaid……that……,若用汉语来表达,须把此长句拆开分成三个单句来分别叙述。
四、英语另一个显著特点是被动句多。英语重物称,常常选择不能施行动作或无生命词语作主语,由于这些“无灵”物称充当主语,使得被动句大兴其道。在英语被动句里,不必强调动作施行者,就将其置于句尾由by连接;不必、不愿或不便言明动作施行者,就干脆将其省略。相对而言,汉语习惯于人称化表达,主语常常是能施行动作或有生命物体,所以汉语中主动句多。请看例句:
It has been known for a long time that there is a first relationship between the heart and the liver.长期以来,大家知道心脏与肝脏关系是最主要。
The fam ous hotel had been practically destroyed by the big fire.大火几乎使这家有名旅馆全部毁灭。
They were given a hearty welcome.他们受到热烈欢迎。
五、英语又一显著特点是其丰富时态。不同语言具有不同时态,有语言甚至很少或没有时态,汉语基本上就是借助词汇来表示各种时间和动作,汉语动词除了只有“着”、“了”、“过”若干说法与英语进行时、完成时或过去时相对外,别无其他与英语相对应时体形式;而英语不仅有时态,而且种类繁多(共有16种时态),区分细微,习惯性强。英语就是通过这些固定语法手段将动作进行过程与状况描绘得更准确更精细,有时甚至能表达说话人感情色彩。如:
You’re always asking me such questions!你老是问我这样问题!(用现在进行时表示厌烦)
I am now living in a very pleasant flat.我现在住在一间非常舒适公寓里。(用现在进行时表示满意)
所以,传递同样意思,英语只要选用合适时态就可以了,汉语则必须使用词汇手段。又如:
It has been noted that those who live, or have lived, in the shadow of death bring a m ellow sweetness to everything theydo.人们已经注意到大凡受到死亡威胁人或是死里逃生人对于他们所干任何事总是兴趣盎然。
六、从词汇方面讲,英汉两种语言也有很大差异。就词组而言,英语中词组或短语可谓林林总总,丰富多彩,有名词短语、动词短语、形容词短语、介词短语、分词短语、不定式短语与独立结构等,它们语法功能不一而足,可作主语、谓语、宾语、定语、状语与表语等。如:
Marriage may be compared to a cage: the birds outside despair to get in and those within despair to get out.婚姻好比鸟笼,外面鸟儿想进进不去,里面鸟儿想出出不来。(不定式短语to get in,to get out作状语)
I am utterly in the dark about the matter.我对这件事完全不知道。(介词词组in the dark作表语)
Christmas is coming up.圣诞节就要到了。(动词短语come up作谓语)
相比之下,汉语更偏重以单音节或多音节单词为其基本句法成分,而且其短语用法十分有限。
语言形成与发展深受本国、本土、历史、地理、风土人情等各方面影响,英语、汉语也不例外。英语中某些词含义并不完全与汉语对等,比如lover这个词,大多数中国人认为是“爱人”(丈夫或妻子),其实在西方lover指是情夫或情妇;再比如First Lady,在英美等国指是总统夫人或州长夫人,而在中国常会被误解,认为是“原配夫人”,说不定还会有“二奶”、“三姨太”之类;又如intellectual这个词,在英美等国其范围较小,只包括大学教授等有较高学术地位人,不包括普通大学生,而多数中国人认为intellectual就是“知识分子”,而且汉语中知识分子所指范围很广,大学教师、中学教师、大学生、医生、工程师、翻译人员以及一切受过大学教育人都可以称为知识分子。
此外英语中许多词常常一词多义,它们所表达各个含义,分别与汉语中几个不同词或词组相对应,所以,在用英文写作时,一定要慎重地选词用词,以期贴切地表达思想。
只要细心去发现,掌握英汉文化两者的区别,相信大家都可以尽快解决在海外留学遇到的问题。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample60164.html

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留学写作技巧:Personal Statement写作

Personal Statement,简称PS,即个人陈述,是申请美国,加拿大,英国等西方国家的大学/研究生录取时由申请人写的对于自我进行简要陈述的文书。不用写的很长,一篇大概在600-800字左右。由于在中国的升学体制中,基本上是唯分数论的,因此中国的申请人对这类文件的写作和思维方式不熟悉,下面51due代写网简单给大家描述一下如何让你的PS更加具有亮点。
欧美大学录取学生,发放奖学金,是通过全面综合考察申请者的条件来决定的。所谓留学文书,如PS,推荐信,RP(Research proposal),CV等是一套文件系统,用以向录取院校从各个角度展现您的求学动机,学术学习能力,工作和研究经历,结合一系列更“客观”,可量化的指标:如GRE,TOEFL,IELTS,GPA等构成您的全貌。留学文书在西方的文化背景下是申请入学(奖学金)的极为重要的组成部分。其中PS往往对您的申请是否成功起到很大的作用。由于中西方教育体制的差异和网上各种良莠不齐的“范文”的误导,许多申请人的PS写作理念非常混乱,本文结合中国申请人文书写作的常见弊端,简述PS的写作要领。
PS的长度
在欧美,PS归为ESSAY(漫谈)类,是一种短小精悍的文体。欧美出版的优秀PS文选,无不短小精悍,内容却非常丰满,文笔优美。一般来说一篇PS的正常长度为600—800英文单词,而相当多的中国申请人的PS超长。甚至某些人的PS写到3千多字。
很多中国申请人试图把自己的方方面面的优点和成绩展示出来,须知PS不是简历的详细补充,许多信息可以通过其它文件展示(如学习成绩等)。美国大学的招生人员曾谈到:在留学申请旺季时,面对堆积如山的文件,一般他们审查一个PS的时间只有2、3分钟,那种长篇大论类的PS只能让人心生厌烦。
PS必须紧扣所要申请那个专业的主题写,主线要明确,不要盲目的个性化
许多人都一知半解地听说PS需要“独特个性”(unique),和“煽情”(Emotional),因此挖空心思地找自己的“独特”点和乱“煽情”,结果往往南辕北辙,许多中国申请人往往用大段篇幅写一些不相干的个性,在招生者眼中,这完全不着边际(make no sense)。必须明确,PS这样一篇短短数百字的文章是没有地方去说不相干的废话的。通过PS您必须让招生者知道您选择该专业的明确和强烈的动机,同时具备充分的条件完成该专业的学习。当然在这个基础上每个人都可以通过很独特而有个性的文字来表达自己。例如一份申请CS(计算机专业)的PS,原文用了数百字描述他如何开展班级工作的经历。却不如将其改为:我喜欢思考,如何让事物运转得更有效率。在大学期间我担任班级文艺委员职务。在工作初期,成员经常因为性格、工作方式各异产生矛盾。后来我根据每个人情况,让性格外向,善于与人交际的人做外联及工作将协调沟通的工作;让善于思考、思维活跃、勇于创新的人做各项工作的筹备及策划工作;让有远见、有凝聚力的人做整个工作的进度安排、及分配各项任务。这样安排的结果是系统发挥了最佳效率。既突出了个性,又紧扣申请CS专业应具有的严谨的系统思维能力这一重要素质体现了出来。
结构简单,衔接紧密,
主线明确,便于理解
“Simple is the best”请记住,招生人员每天要读大量的申请资料,只有那种简单有力重点突出的的文章才能打动招生人员。留学文书其实是您个人的广告,您仔细想想,给您留下深刻印象的广告哪个不是简明而有力的?中国申请人往往倾向于把自己的优点不分主次全都告诉招生人员,导致的结果就是招生人员对您的整体印象的模糊。所以,PS中什么都是重点,就等于没有重点。
精心安排PS和其它
文件的关系
如上所述,PS,推荐信,简历等文件构成一整套申请文件系统,既需要相互应证,也需要这些文件各有侧重点。因此在写作这些文件之前必须总体构思安排文章的布局和每个文件突出的重点。许多申请人将本该由简历或推荐信突出的内容放在PS中,这样不但造成信息的无效重复,同时弱化了PS应起的作用。
语言表达层面上一定要用地道的英语
中国人自己读得很顺的英语往往是按中文的语言逻辑写成的“中式英语”,不但会大大削弱您想表达的意思,产生误解,而且会让招生人员看起来很枯燥无味(DULL).有些申请人,特别是考过GRE的申请人,用词句式过于夸张,古怪,不符合英语的思维习惯和文风。这种中国学院英语,其实经常让外国教授难以理解或是看后笑得前仰后合。完成的文件最好由母语人士进行修改。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample60162.html

提升留学生英语写作能力的方法

英语写作是每一个留学生在刚到海外留学的时候最担心的问题,面对着不一样的语言,不一样的学习模式以及教育理念,留学生需要的是一段适应期。而在这个时候,留学生的学习上的写作问题将由中文转换为英文。那么在这一个改变上,留学生需要从那些方面进一步提高个人的写作能力,51due代写网就从多个方面的技巧跟大家一起分享有关的技巧。
一、抓好基础知识,注重基本技能培养
平时学生开口说话、提笔写文章、测验。做作业,乃至历届高考试卷中,大小写、标点错误,冠词、介词错用,拼写错误等屡见不鲜,尤其是动词运用方面的错误更为严重。如:词不达意、时态混乱、语态不清等错误更为突出。很多学生在基础知识和基本技能方面仍存在着问题。教学大纲一再强调要抓好双基,培养能力,作者认为,扎实的基础知识是培养能力的前提,基础知识不扎实就谈不上能力的培养。
二、加强词、句基本用法训练,培养语句表达能力
词汇是组句的基本材料,而句子则是写文章的基础,要提高学生的写作能力,必须从基础抓起。
1、以动词为核心,进行组句训练。动词是句子的灵魂,没有动词的句子就不能表达意思。多年来,我一直抓住动词这个核心,对学生进行造句训练。
(1)分清词义,避免出现词不达意的错误。如弄清fall与drop,lend与borrow,hope与wish,get used to与be used to等含义与用法上的区别。
(2)突出抓好动词形式变化。这是培养学生语句表达能力的核心,也是汉语与英语的根本区别之一。不掌握动词的形式变化,则无法表达不同时间发生的动作或存在的状态(时态),说话人的语气和主语与谓语之间的关系(语态)
(3)注意动词的搭配形式。不同的动词有不同的搭配形式,如:steal sth.from.sb.与rob sb.of sth;get in touch with与1ose touch with等。而同一动词的不同搭配则含义不同,这样的例子也很多。
除了要抓好动词的使用之外,还有两个不可忽视的词类:介词和冠词。这两类词虽为虚词,但使用频率相当高,几乎造句必用。介词除了与动词搭配外,还可与名词、代词等构成介词短语,有些介词,往往能代替或包含一个动作,实际上起着动词的作用,使句子表达意思简练,使用方便。
在冠词的使用上,也要引导学生予以重视。如:the two of us与two of us;就有不同意思,有时仅一个冠词之差,意思则完全相反。
2、加强基本句型训练。从词到句,由句到篇,句子可谓是最重要的一环。句子写得好与差,直接影响到语篇的效果。以前的高考写作评分主要是根据要点和语言准确程度而定,因此考生在写作时,也只注重不遗漏要点和正确使用语言知识这两个方面,很少考虑或根本不考虑“使用较复杂结构或较高词汇”,导致最后写出来的东西千篇一律,缺乏生气。外语文章写得好不好,主要看能不能有效使用语句间的连接成分,全文结构是否紧凑。所以,为了提高写作档次,我平时对学生进行了以下方面的训练:
(1)适当地使用一些词组、习语来代替一些单词,以增加文采,丰富语句的表现力。
(2)尽量避免过多地重复使用某一单词,必要时应选择使用其它恰当的同义词或词组来代替。
(3)注意使用不同结构、不同长度的句子,尽量使句型多样化,避免 单调。有的文章在语法上并没有什么错误,但由于通篇过多地使用了某一结构,不但使得表达的内容显得单调乏味,而且还给人一种“不成熟”的感觉。我们可以通过转换句式来避免句于结构的单一化。同一个意思,可使用不同的表达方法,这样做既可以突出重点,又能丰富表达,增加文采。
(4)多使用一些主从复合句宋代替简单句,能使写作行文更加流畅有力。
(5)改变句子开头方式,不要一味地都是主语开头,接着是谓语,宾语,最后再在句未加上一个状语。我们可以适当地把一些成分(如状语)提前位于句于的开头,使整个句子读起来有点跌宕起伏,增加写作的表现力。
(6)通过合句,将意义相关的几个句于用一定的连接方式连接起来,或通过紧缩,去掉一些多余的成分,避免冗长累赘、松散无力,以增强句于的连贯性,达到更好的表达效果。有时原句并没有明显的语法错误,但读上去不够简洁,显得罗索。就可以通过一些技巧,如将若干简单句合并成带有一个共同主语的句子。
(7)在整篇文章众多的主谓宾句子结构中,可适当地打破常规,用一些倒装句、强调句或感叹句,可以为文义的表达增添一点新意。
(8)连接成分起着承上启下的作用,是语义关系过渡的桥梁。有效地使用语句间的连接成分,可使全文结构紧凑,层次清楚,过渡自然。如:若原文显得支离破碎、层次不明,通过运用一些连接成分或过渡词后,原结构松散的句子就有机地结合起来,变得上下连贯,浑然一体了。但也要提醒学生,在使用比较复杂的句型或结构时,一定要注意分寸,应根据文章内容和篇章结构而定,千万不要弄巧成拙。常见的过渡用语有:a、表示并列或递进,如and等;b、表示选择的,如or等;c、表示转折的如but等;d、表示对比或比较,如like等;e、表示举例或例证的,如for example/for instance/such as等;f、表示强调的,如also等;g、表示时间或顺序的,如first(of all)等;h、表示因果关系的,如because/as/since/for等;i、表示结论或摘要的,如in a word等。
总之,要写出好的英语作文不是一朝一夕能够做到的,需要循序渐进和长期的训练。有句谚语叫做:“Rome was not built in a day”就是这个道理。同时还要求学生多读,美国作家德而文·G·舒伯特明确指出:“Reading is writing.”我国英语界老前辈葛传染教授在他的专著《英语写作》(The Writing of English)中谈到解决中国学生英语写作的困难时说:“YOu ought to read very careful1y,but also aloud,and that again and again till you know the passage by heart and can recite it as if it were your own.”这说明熟读成诵对写作也是非常重要的。

英语写作水平的提高需要的不仅仅是单一方面的事情,相信只要你多学多看多听,一定可以解决学习上遇到的难题的。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample60157.html

留学学习技巧:学术论文写作

学术论文是一种比较具有权威的论文,留学生在学习上也是经常会接触这一方面的写作。一方面是对于个人能力的体现,也是对于留学生在专业素养的学习进行的考核和验证。如何写好学术论文,对于留学生来说,需要涉及的是多方面技巧以及丰富的学习知识。51due论文代写网的教员根据以往的经验一起来共享留学生在学习上需要解决以及面对的问题一起分享。

一篇正式学术论文应包括: 摘要、引言、文献综述、研究设计、结果与讨论、结论、致谢、参考文献等几大部分。在日常学习中,如果是老师布置的针对某个课题的具体分析或讨论的简单文章,那么可以适当缩减结构,一般包括:引言(introduction)、正文(body)、结论(conclusion)和参考文献(reference)。

一般来说,在引言部分,简述研究背景及论题发展现状,并介绍自己的研究部分构成;在文献综述部分,归纳总结自己研究领域里的相关实证研究,描述当前该领域的研究趋势,并证明自己研究的必要性和意义;在研究设计部分,一般需要详细描述自己研究的方法、程序和研究过程等,突出研究的合理性;如果有数据部分的话,需要在获得数据后,客观正确地分析各种数据,得出并展示结果;在讨论部分,对研究结果深入挖掘,展示结果的好坏及其原因,与现有研究结果的相关性等;结论就是用条理清晰,简明扼要的语言对文章进行概括,指出其研究价值以及未来可能的研究思路和方向。

也就是说,作为一篇合格的学术论文,一般要利用简单明了的语言描述研究目的、方法、结果及意义。另外,要注意逻辑和语法。从这几个月来的经验来看,许多学员的论文是需要结合其上课内容以及充分的学术研究搜索后来写的,这也考验了教员的文献搜索、归纳总结、创新立意的综合能力。

值得强调的一点是最后的参考文献。目前全球各种语言的注释规范不尽统一,仅英文的注释规范就有哈佛体系(Harvard system)、英国标准(British Standard BS5605)、APA方式、Chicago方式、MLA方式等。一般在论文或作业中,老师会布置使用哈佛体系或者APA/MLA方式,而无论使用哪种注释,重要的是在一篇文献里前后应保持一致,并在文章最后列出引文列表。一个很好的方法是利用word内自带的“引用”功能,不但能防止遗漏参考文献,还能轻松统一格式,随时插入引文。

学术论文的写作,相信每一位留学生都会接触到,即使不是那么必要的需求,但是多了解一下这些方面的知识还是非常必要的。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample60134.html

留学生如何写好paper

留学生在写paper的时候,往往要注意的第一点就是审题需要确认清楚,另一方面就是确认好主题,最好就是文章的框架上的问题。对于如何写好一篇paper来说,其实并不难,只要注意好问题的所在,相信是可以写好的。那么对于如何写好论文来说,51due的paper代写中心也是整理出很多的相关资料来帮助你。

写paper其实是一件很简单的事情,当然,前提是你要心中有沟壑,笔下才能有江山。不论是中文写作还是English,思路和大纲都是必备的。你可以不必特意去写下来,但至少心里要清楚。其次,一篇好的paper,重点在于新意。何为新意?即要做到与众不同,这个,就需要个人自己的悟性了。但是从简单方面来说,整篇paper需要结构清晰,逻辑明了,图文并茂。并且各种图注以及reference都要慎重排版,统一格式,让整篇文章看起来很舒适。

对于文章主体部分,个人建议不要按部就班写。Paper开篇的abstract以及introduction建议放在最后写。Introduction是整篇文章的精华所在,也是整个paper的脸面。在introduction里面,你需要突出你的重点和创新点,而这些,最好是在写完conclusion之后,再根据conclusion去写abstract和introduction。

那么,首先应该写哪一部分呢?根据我个人的经验,experimental是最好写也是比较写实的一个部分,他可以随时补充,并且是theory和results的来源和依据所在。在写experimental的过程中,注意逻辑性以及小标题的灵活运用,你可以发现整个paper所涉及到的theory和会得到的results。然后补充完theory和results的部分。在做好results之后,针对你所得到的结果,对比理论中或者你预期的结果,寻找其中的相同以及不同点,然后再进行discussion,要注意discussion中时态的运用,主要对数据特征以及与前人结果的对比或是自身研究的不足的讨论,最终总结出conclusion。然后在整个paper的主体和结论都完成的情况下,发掘文章的创新点,抓住创新点和重点,完成abstract和introduction。值得注意的是,要在abstract中圈定自己的研究范围。在这样的撰写顺序下,introduction一般会比较出彩,吸引人眼球并且提高命中率。

除开写作顺序问题,还要注意绝对不能全面否定前人的成果,即使在你看来前人的结论完全不对。另外句子上下要有连贯,不能让句子之间独立,段落的整体逻辑要清晰。

paper的写作一点都不难写,只要你敞开心扉去面对,完全是没什么问题。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample60133.html

如何描写Argument Paper中body

Argument Paper,body是其主体的主要部分。在写作Argument Paper的body时候,每个留学生都应该注意的问题是从那些方面入手才能更好的完成body的描述。对于这个问题,51due论文代写中心的教员也是从多个方面总节一些相关的写作经验。
Argument Paper Body部分是其主体部分,是其最重要的部分,讲求从一般到具体,在写作的时候,需要仔细规划你的写作思路,采用规范的写作形式,才能一气呵成。对于一个论文的主题,你要想到与此相关的所有内容,将最广泛的信息放在前面,随着论文的继续和深入挖掘,Argument Paper的内容开始集中于讨论部分,提供相关的论据支撑,并解释这些论据的重要性和重要影响,在激烈的讨论之后,还需要做一个总结,这个总结是全文的精华所在。

Argument Paper Body要遵循从一般到具体的原则,此外,还要注意段落的锤炼,好的段落一般包含四个要素:过渡;主题句;具体证据和分析;简短的总结句 !

首先讲一下过渡句,过渡句起承上启下的作用,能够保证阅读的流畅,一个想法可以自然地过渡到另一个想法;

第二是主题句,主题句是具有主旨意义的句子,能够清晰地告诉读者你所讨论的段落的整体意义;

第三是具体论据和分析,对于你所提出的问题和意见,进行充分地解释和论证,与主题句相比,拥有更深层次的细节表述;

最后是简短的总结句,可以告诉读者哪些论据对于本论文的中心是极具意义的,从这个角度而言,明晰论点很重要,能够将你的推理有条理地顺承起来,支持你的论点。

Argument Paper Body最重要的是Induction和Deduction

Induction
Induction,是一种推理的类型,从具体事实出发,并得出具体的结论。Argument Paper中Induction,你需要具体详细地阐述你的thesis,这也是你在经过事实推断和具体论据推理后所得出的结论,这些结论是需要有事实依据的,下面是一个Induction的例子,这是美国Seyler所理解的观点。

Facts
Object:Smith的尸体。
Time:11:00p.m——2:00a.m
Thing:Smith在卧室被击毙。
根据验尸官尸检的结果是:Smith是被枪杀的,用的是32口径手枪,留在卧室的手枪包含了Jones的指纹,Jones是隔壁的一个邻居,在晚上11点钟进入Smith家,晚上Smith死亡。Smith死的那天早上,有同事听到Jones和Smith在Smith的办公室中争吵。
Conclusion:Jones 杀了Smith
支持的论据:Smith死于枪杀,并且犯罪嫌疑人是Jones,Jones进入过犯罪现场,Jones和Smith在Smith死的那天早上有过争吵。
假设:整件事情有前后的关系存在,不是孤立的,因此,这个结论是有论据支撑的。

Deduction
在Argument Paper的写作中,你需要使用Deduction,你需要根据事件的前提拓展开具体的结论,当你进行演绎推理的时候,你必须对整个事件有具体的认识和了解,这种模式称为三段论推理(三段论)。三段论推理(Deduction)分为三个步骤:
大前提、小前提、结论
为了使三段论(Deduction)起作用,你必须接受这两个前提的关系,从逻辑上讲,通过这些前提,你需要得出一个结论。这里有两个三段式推理和Deduction的例子:
苏格拉底
大前提:人,终有一死。
小前提:苏格拉底是一个人。
结论:苏格拉底终有一死。

林肯
大前提:那些在危机中有勇气和明确目的人是伟大的领导者。
小前提:林肯是一个人,拥有极强的勇气,并能够在危机中树立一个清晰的目标。
结论:林肯是一位伟大的领袖。

所以,为了Deduction涉及苏格拉底的例子中,您必须同意第一个前提:人终有一死,第二个前提:苏格拉底是一个人。如果你不同意这些前提,结论是无效的。这个苏格拉底的示例是容易懂的,容易验证的。但是,如果你接触到更抽象的问题,比如术语勇气,明确目的,伟大等,这些联系相比较而言就显得比较脆弱。

例如,一些历史学家可能认为,林肯的伟大并没有得到认可,直到美国南北战争时期,林肯才为人所知。

下面是一个更清晰的推理失败的例子:
大前提:所有的狗都是好宠物。
小前提:Doogle是一只狗。
结论:Doogle将会成为一个好宠物。
如果你不同意所有的狗都是好宠物,那么结论Doogle将成为一个好宠物是无效的。

推理论证
当一个三段论的前提失踪了,三段论成为推理论证。推理论证中可以有非常有效的论点,但它们也可以是不道德的,导致无效的结论。作者经常用推理论证来说服观众。下面是一个例子,一个推理论证:

如果你有一个等离子电视,你不是穷人。

推理论证的第一部分(如果你有等离子电视)是前提。声明的第二部分(你不可怜)是结论。因此,未明确说明的前提是“只有富人有等离子电视”。“上面的推理论证使我们得到一个无效的结论(拥有等离子电视的人不穷),因为有很多人有等离子电视,但是他们是贫穷的,让我们来看看这一推理论证所用的演绎推理的结构:

大前提:拥有等离子电视的让是富裕的(未明确说明的)。
小前提:你拥有等离子电视。
结论:你不是穷人。

为了帮助您了解归纳和演绎如何充分利用和结合,形成一个坚实的论据,你可能需要看看美国的独立宣言。宣言的第一部分包含一系列的三段论,而中间部分是一个归纳列表的例子。最后一部分将第一和第二部分充分分析理解,得出一个令人信服的结论。

以上,就是Argument Ppaper Body写作的注意事项,希望每个留学生看完可以从中获取更多的写作经验。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample59341.html

论文写作技巧:连词汇总

在英语论文写作中,多方面的写作技巧的运用能够让自己的论文在写作上更加凸出,也会加大论文的说服力。连词的在英语中的使用一直是比较重要的角色,使用得当回让自己的论文更加优秀,同时也能更全面的突出文章的质量。51due的paper代写中心的教员也跟大家整理出有关连词大汇总,希望从多方面上更好的协助大家。
英语常用连词汇总

1.增补(Addition)

in addition, furthermore, again, also, besides, moreover, what`s more, similarly, next, finally, further, most important, too ,and then, indeed ..

2.比较(Comparison)

in the same way, likewise, similarly, equally, in comparison, just as, at the same time,
in contrast, like ,as ,conversely ,while ,on the contrary.

3.对照(Contrast)

whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, however, nevertheless, unlike, even though, on the contrary, while

4.因果(Cause and effect)

because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result(of), accordingly, hence, so, thus, as, therefore ,in that, consequently, as a consequence ,so that, to this end.

5.强调(Emphasis)

certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most important

6.让步(Concession)

although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true….if,
only if, despite, even so ,even though, rather, while, regardless .

7.例证(Exemplification)

for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of , illustration,. finally, still, as an example, specifically, in particular ,next, another .

8.总结(Conclusion)

to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nutshell, in summary

9.推断(Inference)

therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise

10.时间和空间(Time and space)

afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyond, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of, before, until ,till ,meanwhile, subsequently
11.转折
However ,yet ,but ,anyhow ,anyway ,nevertheless ,while .

11.启承转合

1)、启

A proverb says…… At present…….

As the proverb says…. Currently…..

Generally speaking, …. Now,…

一篇论文的好与坏,不是论文的华丽度,而是一篇论文的真实度。写好一篇论文,就如你在学会搭配怎样穿衣服才能显得大方得体。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample59329.html

留学海外:论文写作指导

在这个追逐完美的年代里,每个人对于每件事情的追究越来越倾向与完美。对于留学海外的留学生来说,完成一篇prefect的论文是每个留学生最希望的事情之一。因为一篇好的论文不仅给留学生带来不错的成绩也可以给留学生带来好的影响。下面51due论文代写网的教员组就针对如何写好一篇论文来说跟大家分享有关的写作经验。

第一步研究
假设你要设定一个主题,或者要缩小它的范围,你的第一个任务就是要研究它的主题内容。你也许不能够很直接的写出它的相关内容。为了可以写出有价值的见解,你需要耐心的进行一些阅读工作。

当你进行研究工作时,需要设定正确的目标以保证自己的写作方向是正确的。关于主题的相关内容可以在互联网上进行寻找自己熟悉的基本事件来进行补充,然后可以将信息录入到更为全面的学术数据库中,将自己置身于图书馆中调查相关问题的本质。尽管最初的调查研究开始于互联网,但是你不能够简单的进行这些就可以了。一项研究论文不仅仅只是依靠于互联网资源,它只是一张电子纸而已,最大的缺陷就是不能够从学术数据库中利用更多的资源。

当你读到一篇有兴趣的论文,可以在手边拿张纸写上你可以接受的价格。要确保你付出的价格与你看到的论文是相一致的。我建立手写报价这样可以确订保不要过度的重复使用论文。
Step 1: Research
Assuming you`ve been given a topic, or have narrowed it sufficiently down, your first task is to research this topic. You will not be able to write intelligently about a topic you know nothing about. To discover worthwhile insights, you`ll have to do some patient reading.

When you conduct research, move from light to thorough resources to make sure you`re moving in the right direction. Begin by doing searches on the Internet about your topic to familiarize yourself with the basic issues; then move to more thorough research on the Academic Databases; finally, probe the depths of the issue by burying yourself in the library. Make sure that despite beginning on the Internet, you don`t simply end there. A research paper using only Internet sources is a weak paper, and puts you at a disadvantage for not utilizing better information from more academic sources.

As you read about your topic, keep a piece of paper and pen handy to write down interesting quotations you find. Make sure you write down the source and transcribe quotations accurately. I recommend handwriting the quotations to ensure that you don`t overuse them, because if you have to handwrite the quotations, you`ll probably only use quotations sparingly, as you should. On the other hand, if you`re cruising through the net, you may just want to cut and paste snippets here and there along with their URLsinto a Word file, and then later go back and sift the kernels from the chaff.

With print sources, you might put a checkmark beside interesting passages. Write questions or other thoughts in the margins as well. If it`s a library book, use post-it notes to avoid ruining the book. Whatever your system, be sure to annotate the text you read. If reading online, see if you can download the document, and then use Word`s Reviewing toolbar to add notes or the highlighter tool to highlight key passages.

Take a little from a lot
You`ll need to read widely in order to gather sources on your topic. As you integrate research, take a little from a lot — that is, quote briefly from a wide variety of sources. This is the best advice there is about researching. Too many quotations from one source, however reliable the source, will make your essay seem unoriginal and borrowed. Too few sources and you may come off sounding inexperienced. When you have a lot of small quotations from numerous sources, you will seem — if not be — well-read, knowledgeable, and credible as you write about your topic.
Analysis
As you research your topic, you will naturally be analyzing the arguments of different authors. In contrast to more popular reading, in the academic world, authors must supply copious amounts of evidence and nuanced reasoning in order persuade other scholars of their ideas. To enter the scholar`s “gladiator arena,” you will need to understand the principles of argument. Both analyzing an argument and coming up with your own will require careful thought.
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Identify the argument
An argument consists of two main components: a claim, and reasons for that claim. Neither a claim without reasons, nor reasons without a claim, is an argument. Only when one leverages particular reasons to make a claim from those reasons do we say that an “argument” is taking place.
When analyzing an argument of any text, or creating one of your own, first identify the main claim and then locate all the reasons for it. The claim is the controversial, debatable assertion of the essay, while the reasons offer the explanations and evidence of why the claim is true. It is helpful to map this reasoning out:
CLAIM = ________________________________________

Reason 1: ____________________________
Reason 2: ____________________________
Reason 3: ___________________________
Assess the reasoning
Once you have the argument mapped out, assess the reasoning. Ask yourself the following questions to help you identify weaknesses of logic:

(1.) Is there an alternative explanation that is possible?An alternative explanation is a different reason for the same claim. Probing the alternative explanations or reasons for a claim is an excellent way to open up weaknesses in the author`s logic.

Example: “John was late because he obviously doesn`t care about the class.” (An alternative explanation for John`s lateness could be that he got in a car wreck, and therefore couldn`t make it on time to class, not that he doesn`t care about it.)

(2.) Is the evidence presented sufficient?Evidencerefers to the support given for a claim. This support may be in the form of facts, statistics, authoritative quotations, studies, observations, experiences, research, or other forms of proof.

Example: “John was late because he has Alzheimer`s disease, and according to the American Medical Association,Alzheimer`s patients frequently forgot who and where they are” (Jones 65). (The writer has given evidence in the form of research for his or her reasoning.)
(3.) What assumptions do the reasons rest on? An assumption is what one takes for granted to be true, but which actually may not be true. All arguments rest on some common assumptions. This common ground makes it possible for two people to have a dialogue in the first place, but these assumptions, because they are based on groundless ideas, make for a “sweet spot” of attack in argument.

Find an original idea
Brainstorming is the art of thinking critically to discover original, hidden insights about a topic. Assuming you`ve done a fair amount of research, you should now have a solid base of concepts to play around with for an essay. The task is now to stand on the shoulders of the scholars you`ve read and find something original to say about the topic. It is not enough to regurgitate what they have said. You must go beyond them to propose an original idea. Your paper should expose some new idea or insight about the topic, not just be a collage of other scholars` thoughts and research — although you will definitely rely upon these scholars as you move toward your point.

Thesis
After researching, analyzing, and brainstorming, you should have an worthwhile insight to write about. Now it`s time to convert that worthwhile insight into a polished thesis statement, which will then guide and shape the rest of the essay.
The thesis acts as the main claim of your paper, and typically appears near the end of the introduction. Unless you have a compelling reason to relocate the thesis from the traditional place, put it at the end of your introductory paragraph. Readers anticipate and read closely your thesis, and they want to find a polished statement there. The thesis expresses in one concise sentence the point and purpose of your essay.

Make it arguable
Your thesis must make an arguable assertion. To test whether your assertion is arguable, ask yourself whether it would be possible to argue the opposite. If not, then it`s not a thesis — it`s more of a fact. For example:

Not Arguable: “Computers are becoming an efficient mechanism for managing and transmitting information in large businesses.”(Who`s going to dispute this? It`s not an arguable assertion — it`s a fact.)
Arguable:”Heavy use of computers may disrupt family cohesion and increase divorce in society.”(This is arguable because many people may not believe it. It would make a good thesis!)

Be specific
The thesis must also be specific. Avoid broad, vague generalizations. Your thesis should include detail and specificity, offering the reader the why behind your reasoning.

Poor Specificity:”We should not pass the microchip bill.”(Hey, not specific enough! It`s just a value statement and doesn`t provide enough reasoning for the reader.)
Good Specificity:”Because the microchip insert causes serious health hazards such as cancer and brain tumors to those who use it, the microchip should not be passed.”(Now the thesis is much more specific, and the reader gets a clear idea of what the essay is going to be about.)

Avoid lists
If your thesis consists of a long list of points, your essay will most likely be superficial. Suppose you had six reasons why WebCT should be adopted in college courses. Instead of trying to cover so much ground in your essay, narrow your focus more to give greater depth to fewer ideas, maybe discussing two or three points instead.

Long lists result in shallow essays because you don`t have space to fully explore an idea. If you don`t know what else to say about a point, do more brainstormingand research. However, if you`re arguing a longer paper, and really need to cover this much ground, still avoid the list in your thesis — just give the reader a general idea of your position, without being so specific.
Example of a list:”The microchip bill biologically damages the health of children, invades the privacy of independent teenagers, increases crime, turns children against their parents, induces a sense of robotry about the individual, and finally, may result in the possible takeover of the government.”(Wow, what a list! In a 1,000 word essay, each of these topics will only be explored superficially.)

Narrower focus:”By surgically inserting circuitry similar to cell phone devices that has been known to cause headaches and fatigue, the microchip biologically endangers the health of children.”(I`ve narrowed my focus to just one point — health hazards — instead of the six. Now my job will be to explore this assertion in depth. Academic writing almost always prefers depth over breadth.)

Follow an “although . . . actually” format
The “although . . . actually” format is one of the most effective ways of finding something original and controversial to say. In effect, you are telling someone that what he or she thought to be previously true really isn`t. You`re saying, Hey, you thought X? Well, you`re wrong. Really, it`s Y!Whenever you look beyond the obvious and give readers something new to consider, you`re going to get their attention. Nothing works better than this “although . . . actually” format to set you up in delivering an insight.

Example: Althoughit appears that computers may help students learn to write, actually they can become a detriment to the generation of what what creative writers call “flow.”

Example: Althoughmany people believe that extraterrestials and crop circles are a figment of the imagination, actuallythere is strong evidence suggested by collective, distinct anecdotes that alien encounters are real.

Example: Althoughsome philosophers profess to lead more pure, thoughtful lives, actually philosophers are no different than other publication-hungry academics.
Use an outline to plan
Can you imagine a construction manager working on a skyscraper without a set of blueprints? No way! Similarly, writers construct essays using sets of blueprints or outlines to guide them in the writing process. Of course writers don`t haveto use outlines, but the effect is about the same as a construction worker who “freebuilds.”

Drawing up an outline allows you to think before you write. What use is there in writing the entire paper only to realize that, had you done a little more planning beforehand, you would have organized your essay in an entirely different way? What if you realize later, after free-writing the essay, that you should have omitted some paragraphs, restructured the progression of your logic, and used more examples and other evidence?

You can go back and try to insert major revisions into the essay, but the effect may be like trying to add a thicker foundation to a building already constructed. The outline allows you to think beforehand what you`re going to write so that when you do write it, if you`ve done your planning right, you won`t have to do as much rewriting. (You will still, of course, need to revise.)

Make your points brief
When you construct your outline, keep it brief. The titles, headings, and points in your outline should be about one line each. Remember that you are only drawing an outline of the forest, not detailing each of the trees. Keep each line under a dozen words. If you can`t compress your point into a one-liner, you probably don`t have a clear grasp of what you`re trying to say.

When you describe the point of each paragraph, phrase the point in a mini-claim. If the point of a paragraph is that soft drugs should be legal because they are relatively harmless, don`t just write “soft drugs” as the point of the paragraph in your outline — it`s too brief and vague. Instead, write “drugs should be legal b/c soft drugs are harmlessl.” This description is still brief, as it should be (one line or less), but it makes a claim that gives it purpose in the outline.

View a sample outline
Choose an appropriate arrangement
Drawing up an outline allows you to see at a glance how each of the paragraphs fits into the larger picture. When looking at your paragraphs from this perspective, you can easily shift around the order to see how a reorganization might be better. Remember that each paragraph in the essay should support the position or argument of your paper.

As you`re shifting paragraphs around (maybe like you would a Rubic`s cube), you will probably begin to wonder what the best arrangement really is. In general, put what you want the reader to remember either first or last, not in the middle. Studies in rhetoric have shown the readers remember least what is presented in the middle of an essay. Hence, the middle is where you should probably put your weaker arguments and counterarguments.

Some writers urge a climactic arrangement, one that works up to your strongest point, which is delivered as a kind of grand finale. Another successful arrangement is the inductive argument, in which you build up the evidence first, and then draw conclusions. A problem-solution format involves presenting the problem first and then outlining the solution — this works well for some topics because it is a soft version of the scientific method. Whatever your choice, choose an arrangement that presents a clear, logical argument.

The Introduction
Get the reader`s attention
The first goal in your introduction is to grab the reader`s attention. Wake him or her up and generate some interest about the topic. To grab the reader`s attention, you might present . . .
an interesting fact
a surprising piece of information
an exciting quotation
an intriguing paradox
an explanation of an odd term
a short narrative/anecdote (not fiction)
Jump right into the Issue
In a short essay (under 1,000 words), a lengthy introduction is hardly needed. After getting the reader`s attention, just jump right into the issue and begin directly, perhaps describing a specific, concrete situation — presumably the context of the problem you`re exploring. Avoid beginning your essay with broad statements or bland generalizations such as “X is becoming an issue . . . ” or “Throughout time man has wondered . . . .” Do not begin so broad and general that the first several sentences could fit nearly any essay in the world. For example:

Too General: Crime has been an issue throughout time.
More Specific: The question of the severity of punishments for juveniles is an issue that has garnered attention due to the increasing number of juvenile shootings in the last several years.

Too General: Man has always wondered about the meaning of information.
More Specific: The Age of Information brought about through the digital revolution of computers has posed significant questions about the value and worth of this information: Does having instant access to every newspaper and journal blog in the world make us more intelligent, value-based people?

I like how Michele Montaigne, a sixteenth-century essayist, explains how to write an introduction: “For me, who ask only to become wiser, not more learned or eloquent, these logical and Aristotelian arrangements are not to the point. I want a man to begin with the conclusion. I understand well enough what death and pleasure are; let him not waste his time anatomizing them. I look for good solid reasons from the start, which will instruct me in how to sustain their attack. . . . I do not want a man to use his strength making me attentive and to shout at me fifty times “Or oyez!” in the manner of our heralds. . . . These are so many words lost on me. I come fully prepared from my house; I need no allurement or sauce; I can perfectly well eat my meat quite raw; and instead of whetting my appetite by these preparations and preliminaries, they pall and weary it” (“Of Books”).

In other words, don`t tire your reader with long introductions that fail to get quickly to the point and issue. Begin with specifics and jump right into the problem or conflict you are addressing. When readers see a good conflict, they are likely to take an interest in it.

Present your thesis
The entire introduction should lead toward the presentation of your arguable assertion, or thesis, whereby you take a stand on the issue you are discussing. Deliver your thesis at the end of the introduction so that your reader knows what general position you will take in your essay. You don`t need to spell out all the nitty gritty details of your thesis in the introduction, particularly if it would be bulky and unintelligible to the reader who lacks all the ensuing reference and context, but you should give the reader a good idea of what your argument is. As you do this, avoid saying “I will discuss . . .” or “I intend to argue . . .”

Choose a singular focus
Each paragraph should have a clear, singular focus to it. If there is an overriding error students make in writing essays, it is shifting topics within the same paragraph, rather than continuing to develop the same idea they began with. A paragraph is a discrete unit of thought that expands one specific idea, not three or four. If you find yourself shifting gears to start a new topic, begin a new paragraph instead.

Someone once compared the beginning of a new paragraph to the changing angle of a wall. When the angle of the wall changes, a new wall begins. Let your paragraphs be like that wall: running straight along a certain angle, and beginning anew when the angle changes.

Begin with a topic sentence
Nothing will help you keep a tighter focus on your paragraphs than topic sentences. A topic sentence is generally the first sentence of the paragraph, and it describes the claim or point of the paragraph, thus orienting the reader to the purpose of the paragraph. When you use topic sentences, your reader will invariably find it easier to follow your thoughts and argument. As an example, look at the first sentences of each paragraph on this page. The entire paragraph is focused around the stated topic sentence. Additionally, headings are used to make it even clearer and easier to follow. If you`re writing a long research essay (10 + pages), you might consider using headings.

Develop the idea
Invariably students shift topics and lose focus within their paragraphs because they do not know how to adequately develop their ideas. They usually know the paragraph needs to be longer, but they don`t know how to expand their idea to fill that length. Indeed a paragraph should be at least half a page long, but usually no more than one page. How, then, if you don`t have enough to say, do you fill that paragraph length? Instead of broadening the focus, which will only be another form of topic shifting, try implementing these techniques for development:

illustrate your idea with examples

give an authoritative quotation
anticipate and respond to counterarguments
back your ideas with more evidence
offer another perspective to the idea
brainstorm more insights about the idea
elaborate on causes/effects, definitions, comparison/contrast
Step 8: The Conclusion
Recap your main idea
If your essay was long and complex, sometimes difficult to follow, in the conclusion you`ll want to recap your ideas in a clear, summarizing manner. You want your readers to understand the message you intended to communicate. However, if your essay was short and simple, don`t insult your readers by restating at length the ideas they already understand. Strike a balance according to what you feel your readers need. In a short essay (600 words or less), any recapitulation should be brief (about 2 sentences), and rephrased in a fresh way, not just cut and pasted from the thesis.
Leave a memorable impression
It`s not enough just to restate your main ideas — if you only did that and then ended your essay, your conclusion would be flat and boring. You`ve got to make a graceful exit from your essay by leaving a memorable impression on the reader. You need to say something that will continue to simmer in the reader`s minds long after he or she has put down your essay. To leave this memorable impression, try . . .

giving a thought-provoking quotation
describing a powerful image
talking about consequences or implications
stating what action needs to be done
ending on an interesting twist of thought
explaining why the topic is important
Keep it short
Keep your conclusion short, probably ten lines or less, and avoid fluff. You`re just trying to make a clever exit, and presumably all the really important points have been made previously in your essay. You should not introduce any totally new ideas in the conclusion; however, you should not merely repeat your thesis either. This situation — not presenting anything new, and neither just sticking with the old — at first seems to be a paradox. However, with a little effort, one of the above six methods will usually yield “a quiet zinger,” as John Tribble calls it.

Examples of Real Conclusions
1. Ending on an image

Today, as the phonographs which follow prove, the mystique of the cat is still very much alive in the Egyptian environment. For after all, should not the cat be important in the Muslim world, as apparently God inspired man to write its name-qi, t, t in Arabic letters-in such a shape that it looks like a cat?

–Lorraine Chittock, Cairo Cats

If this book has any future use, it will be as a modest contribution to that challenge, and as a warning: that systems of thought like Orientalism, discourses of power, ideological fictions-mind-forg`d manacles-are all too easily made, applied, and guarded. Above all, I hope to have shown my reader that the answer to Orientalism is not Occidentalism. No former “Oriental” will be comforted by the thought that having been an Oriental himself he is likely-too likely-to study new “Orientals”-or “Occidentals”-of his own making. If the knowledge of Orientalism has any meaning, it is in being a reminder of the seductive degradation of knowledge, of any knowledge, anywhere, at any time. Now perhaps more than before.

–Orientalism, Edward Said

When one reads any strongly individual piece of writing, one has the impression of seeing a face somewhere behind the page. It is not necessarily the actual face of the writer. I feel this very strongly with Swift, with Defoe, with Fielding, Stendhal, Thackeray, Flaubert, though in several case I do not know what these people looked like and do not want to know. What one sees is the face that the writer ought to have. Well, in the case of Dickens I see a face that is not quite the face of Dickens`s photographs, though it resembles it. It is the face of a man of about forty, with a small beard and a high colour. He is laughing, with a touch of anger in his laughter, but no triumph, no malignity. It is the face of a man who is always fighting against something, but who fights in the open and is not frightened, the face of a man who is generously angry-in other words, of a nineteenth-century liberal, a free intelligence, a type hated with equal hatred by all the smelly little orthodoxies which are now contending for our souls.

–“Charles Dickens,” George Orwell

A popular tale, which I picked up in Geneva during the last years of World War I, tells of Miguel Servet`s reply to the inquisitors who had condemned him to the stake: “I will burn, but this is a mere event. We shall continue our discussion in eternity.”

–Jorge Luis Borges, Nonfictions

The practice of rhetoric involves a careful attention to the characteristics and preferences of the audience for whom the writer intends the message. Although Syfers` and Limpus` essays might be somewhat out of place for a contemporary audience, in the 1970s they were not. However, as argued throughout this essay, it is Syfers` memorable sarcasm and wit that ultimately win over her audience. Being humorous while also driving home a worthwhile point is a difficult feat to accomplish in writing. Because Syfers accomplishes it so well, she seems to have stepped over the boundaries of time and reached a much larger audience than she may have originally intended.

–imitation of a student essay

I am quite convinced that what hinders progress in the Arab world is the absence of a free press. The dirt in our society has been swept under the carpet for too long. But I am certain that this won`t be the case for much longer. Arabs are beginning to engage in lively debate over their political and social predicament. And Al-Jazeera offers a ray of hope. Already, other Arab stations are imitating The Opposite Direction, though with limitations. Press freedom leads to political freedom. Someday, in spite of the attempts by today`s totalitarian rulers, a free Arab press may help to create real democracy in the Arab world.

When using ideas or phrases from other writers in your own essay, you must correctly cite in your text exactly where the ideas or phrases come from. Correctly identifying these ideas and phrases is called “in-text citation,” and the page at the end of your essay listing the sources you used is called a “Works Cited” page.

Different disciplines follow different style guides for in-text citation and Works Cited pages, but in most writing courses, because they fall under the humanities discipline, MLA (Modern Language Association) Style is used. Although there are many details and rules about incorporating research into your essay, the following five basic principles will help you correctly ingetrate sources in your essay.

Make sure all authors cited in the body of your essay also appear on the Works Cited page.
If you quote Jones, Smith, and Johnson in your essay, these three authors should appear with full documentation on the Works Cited pagel. Don`t forget them. Likewise, all the authors or sources listed in the Works Cited page should appear in the body of your essay. There should be no sources listed on the Works Cited page that were not cited in your actual essay.

If the source you`re quoting is unremarkable and dry in its expression or opinion, don`t bring that unremarkable, dry text into your own writing as well. Paraphrase this material instead, and follow up your paraphrase with the author`s name in parentheses (or the article title, if there is no author). Only quote catchy, memorable, quotable phrases, and keep the quotations short — one or two lines usually. In general you want to quote sparingly and preserve your own voice.

Don`t rely too much on the same source.
If you have four or five quotes from the same author, your reader will eventually just desire to read that author instead. Too much quoting also compromises your own voice and sense of authority about the issue. Rather than limiting your research to one or two authors, draw upon a wide variety of sources, and quote only snippets from each. Having variety will ensure that you are well read in the subject and that you`ve examined the issue from multiple perspectives.

Follow up your quotations with commentary, interpretation, or analysis.
Avoid just dropping in the quotation and then immediately moving on, assuming the reader fully understands the meaning, purpose, and application of the quotation just presented. You almost always should comment on the quotation in some way, even if your commentary is a simple reexplanation of what the quotation means (“In other words . . .”). Remember that you`re taking the quotation from an article you`ve read, but the reader only gets a glimpse of that whole article and lacks the context that you have, so it might be more difficult for the reader to understand it. Because the essay is supposed to represent your ideas, not just those of another, you must find some way to comment or analyze what you summarize or quote.

Use signal phrases to introduce your quotations.
A signal phrase is a clause before the quotation that identifies the author (e.g., “Jones says,” or “According to Jones . . .”). Signal phrases are essential to create a bridge between your own voice and that of another you are incorporating into your essay. If you identify the author in the signal phrase, don`t also identify author in parentheses following the quotation. Once is enough.

Also, don`t put the article title in the signal phrase unless you want to draw particular attention it. Including the article title in your signal phrase usually results ina long, clunky pre-quote phrase that takes the focus off the quotation.

Example of a clunky pre-quote signal phrase:According to the article “Censorship in American High School Reading Classes,” Twain`s Huckleberry Finn has been “sacrificed to the gods of political correctness, without any attention to its literary merits.” (Avoid putting the article title in the signal phrase.)

Better:According to the American Quarterly Review, Twain`s Huckleberry Finn has been “sacrificed to the gods of political correctness, without any attention to its literary merits.”
Even Better:According to Edmund Wilson, “Twain rewrote the American setting through his character Huck Finn.”

Example of redundancy:Mark Twain says the secret to success is “making your vocation your vacation” (Twain.) (We don`t need Twain identified twice!)
Special note–“qtd. in”:Suppose you`re using a quotation that appears inside an article written by someone other than the one saying the quotation. In other words, if you`re using, say, Judge William`s quotation that appears within Mary Jones` article, you cite it by writing “qtd. in” following the quote. If so, write “qtd. in Jones,” or whomever.

Example: According to Judge Williams, “just law is the foundation of a just society” (qtd. in Jones).
If Jones is just paraphrasing Williams, then you would omit the “qtd. in” and just write (Jones).

Step 10: Language
According to Truman Capote, “The greatest pleasure of writing is not what it`s about, but the music the words make.” As you edit the language of your essay, you are trying to make music out of the words.

In this step the content of your essay should be solid. If the idea itself needs discarding, you shouldn`t be tweaking the language; it would be a waste of time working on transitions if the organization and structure of your essay were in need of repair. Hence editing the language of your essay comes last. Here you are putting polish on a shoe that has already been sewn.

Editing the language can be tedious, but it is essential. You`ve got to proofread your essays dozens of times to catch all the rough spots and language errors. As you proofread you will be checking for misspellings, poor mechanics, bad grammar, awkward word flow and numerous other linguistic details that you can improve. Proofreading the language may take hours as you attempt to polish your language to the point that it is pleasing to read and has literary style.

Give Your Eyes Rest
The more you read your essay, the more blind you become to it. Soon you stop reading the words on the page and only begin reading what`s in your mind, which you falsely transpose onto the page. The actual letters could be Hebrew, or Greek, for all it matters at that point.

Don`t keep reading hour after hour until your mind registers the entire text at a glance, without seeing the details. What you must do is rest your eyes; take a break. Give yourself a day or two between revisions. (This is why you should not procrastinate your assignments.) When you come back to your essay with fresh eyes and a renewed perspective, you will see with added clarity all the rough phrasings and strange ideas that your eyes once glided over.

Know What to Look For
You can read your essay a thousand times over, but if you don`t know what you`re looking for, you will probably miss all the errors you`re attempting to find. If you`re going to work hard, make sure you`re putting all your energy to a productive use. Know what to look for when you proofread. See the criteria in the Grades section of this site. There are twelve areas to look for: logic, evidence, development, focus, structure, unity, integration, in-text citation, works cited, grammar, clarity, style. Check off each category as you examine your essay. Another help for proofreading is to ask yourself the same questions in the Peer Review, conducting instead a “self-review.” Finally, be sure to use the spell-checker and grammar-checker in Word.

Don`t Plagiarize
You might want to ask a friend to read over your essay and give suggestions for change. This is usually advantageous. Some students, however, perhaps feeling pressure to bring their language level up to a more fluent, “A” level, might ask their friends to go beyond a few simple suggestions and instead to heavily edit or rewrite the language of their paper. While it is generally okay for another to get somefeedback from others on ideas and language, your friend or family member cannot take upon the role of an editor, changing your sentences and thoughts to reflect a linguistic and analytical level that is not yours and which is beyond your ability. Passing off another`s language as your own — even if the ideas remain original to your own mind — is considered plagiarism. Your work must be your own, and that includes the language and style, not just content.

Knowing that the work is your own, and that it represents your highest level of performance, you will feel a sense of achievement and personal growth that perhaps you have not experienced before. Each essay should seem to you that it is your best work to date. Only when you feel this way is the paper done.

一篇prefect额论文,讲究的不是堆砌一堆华丽的辞藻,相反是需要一定的写作技巧和写作经验结合起来才能更好的完善一篇论文。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample59327.html

留学英国:Research Proposal的写作指导

对于每一个留学生来说,掌握好一门写作技巧是非常必要的,因为它不仅能够快速提高个人的能力,也能从中快速的影响每一个留学生的成长。对于留学英国的留学生来说,在学习上掌握好Research Proposal的技巧也是一个至关重要的。下面51due的essay代写中心毕业伦敦大学的教员就结合自身的经验,跟每一个留学生分享自身的经验。

Your draft must include at least 5 pages of text (1.5 line spacing) indicating an outline of your concerns. It must include the following:你论文必须包括,在至少5页的文字(1.5倍行距),论文核心内容要指示你关注的问题一个写一份大纲。它必须包括执行以下操作:

• Proposed Title
•建议标题
研究领域:文本中,你身体勾勒出地形您的顾虑给予部分的标题,并说明你打算如何布局你的文章。
• Field of research: A body of text in which you outline the terrain of your concerns giving section headings and an indication of how you intend to layout your essay.•新艺术的历史的在其中处的文意而言是您的工作就是坐落的先例和血统。
• Art historical context in which your work is situated i.e. precedents and lineage
.•艺术家:在至少4个当代的,您已选择的作品价格不断上涨的艺术家谁的工作在的区域中,Research Proposal写作技巧你已经确定了,作为您感兴趣写作主要观点。包括可能被证明是相关的的的作品。包括在有需要的时候会对该的图像进行重新优化。
• Artists: at least 4 contemporary artists that you have selected who work in the area you have identified as of interest to you. Include works that might prove relevant. Include images if necessary.你的打算,以请参阅和谁的理论家乃属恰当的为探索您的提出更多的的忧虑问题。
• Theoreticians to whom you intend to refer and who are appropriate for exploring your concerns more deeply.
•文学审查 – 建立研究领域的,并靠是什么内容已被写入就可以了。这应该担任作为一个工作为您的的短文列表,并应该最终演变成您的征文的参考书目。
• Literature review – establishing the field of study and what has been written on it. This should serve as a working list for your essay and should eventually evolve into your essay bibliography.

Despite the fact that this is only a working draft please ensure you pay attention to correct spelling and grammar. In addition make sure that you utilise the correct referencing conventions. Check in the library if in doubt. 尽管一个事实,即这仅仅是一个的工作草案,请确保你付出请阁下垂注到插入的拼写和语法是否正确。此外,确保你使用正确的引用公约。

Remember:注意事项

The essay takes as its starting point your studio practice and the particular areas of interest and research that inform your work. Thus the body of your essay will examine the broader arena of your concerns as well as the art that relates to and/or directly informs your own work. You need to indicate that you are aware of significant artists who are pertinent to your area of research interest, either formally or conceptually. You also need to be able to indicate that you can historically locate the lineage of your concerns.

Using Theorists and their Theories:使用理论家和他们的的理论

You have been introduced to a variety of theorists in your discourse lectures. You may have, up until now, only seen them as relevant to discourse and not had the opportunity of seeing how you may apply their theories to your own work. Sometimes only part of a theorist’s work will be useful to your concerns – for instance French psychoanalyst Jaques Lacan’s analysis of the ‘mirror phase’ in human development has been particularly useful to artists engaged with how to represent the self. Julia Kristeva, a Bulgarian-French literary critic, psychoanalyst and feminist amongst other things, has interests which range wide, but her theory of abjection in particular has been fundamental to many a feminist artist concerned with the body.

However, sometimes a number of different aspects of a theorist’s concerns may be relevant to your own research. This may prove confusing for you. Consequently when starting your engagement with a particular theorist’s work it might be useful to read secondary sources to begin with to get an overview of the theorist’s main concerns so you do not become bogged down in a field, such as psychoanalysis, with which you are not familiar.

If you need overviews of theorists concerns it might be useful to scan the web. For instance http://www.zeroland.co.nz/art_theory.html#theo is a good website for all sorts of references to theorists who have affected or reflected upon art (although, fascinatingly, it leaves out female theorists for some unspecified reason so don’t only rely on it). Art: Key Contemporary Thinkers edited by Diarmuid Costello and Jonathan Vickery is also a useful starting place for pointers in specific directions. Remember theories are tools which help you extrapolate your concerns and understand your own processes so choose theorists who seem to throw light on your own endeavours.

A good source book for introducing yourself to schools of thought is Art Since 1900: Modernism, Antimodernism, Postmodernism by Hal Foster, Rosalind Krauss, Yve-Alain Bois and Benjamin Buchloh. It’s worth owning a copy if you have the cash. It covers all the major movements, theorists, artists of the 20th century and beyond and, importantly for your project, it references philosophy, psychology, sociology, anthropology, linguistics, and literary theory, which provides a broader context for the subject than is usually presented in other art history texts. Minor groups such as Lettrism, the Independent Group, Gutai, Kineticism, the Harlem Renaissance, Aktionism, earthworks, video art, and the aesthetics of ACT UP are included. These may well provide clues as to how to situate your own work

在海外留学,你要的不仅仅是一个文凭,更多时候是需要更多的经验来解决学习上出现的难题。掌握好Research Proposal的写作技巧,其实更多的时候也是对自己学习上的一个提升。

原文来自:http://www.51due.com/online-tutoring/writing-skills/sample59321.html

留学美国:final论文写作技巧

在美国学习学习的留学生都知道,final论文是大家都比较看重且注意的学科,因为他所占的分数比例是比较高,且需要花费很多的时间、经历在这个写作上面。对于如何写好一篇final论文来说,51due论文代写网的教员也是从多方面的的写作技巧跟大家分享有关的经验。

论文长度一般都是有4-5页,并且使用标准页边距、双倍行距和12号字体进行排版,这些要求讲在文章内容中列出,同学们不需要做更多的研究。维基百科可以帮助你开始这篇论文,但是人们普遍认为,它提供的资料不够(因为一些内容没有被授权,所以不允许你使用这种资源)。“斯坦福哲学百科全书”是相对比较权威的,但它可以给你更多的信息,你需可以从这里获取你所需要的资料。

The final paper should be 4-5 pages long, double spaced with standard margins and 12 point font and will be based on one of six cases given below. You do not need to do additional research. Wikipedia can help you get started but the general consensus is that it is not scholarly enough to be included in academic work (some professors disagree, so I won’t mark you down for using this resource). The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy is more authoritative though it can give you much more information that you need for this paper.
在美国很多大学和学院都是在2002年以后逐步的接入互联网,随着越来越多的学生经常从网络上下载电影、音乐文件,但是这些电影和音乐文件都是未经授权的盗版产品。在某些情况下,甚至有多达75%的网络带宽被文件传输所占用。
At many college and universities in the United States, internet connections began to slow perceptibly in 2002 as more and more students were downloading music and movies, often files that were pirated or that they were otherwise unauthorized to download. In some cases, as much as seventy-five percent of a university’s bandwidth is being taken up with file swapping.
The final paper will be an analysis of one of a series of six cases (given below). Here’s how I want you to structure your paper:
1. First, summarize in a few sentences the ethical issues involved in the case you’re writing about (i.e. why is there an ethical debate or issue here at all)? Please pick only one case! Make sure your answer is general, rather than simply repeating the facts of the case (remember the difference between a descriptive and a normative claim).
How are we to resolve the ethical issue(s) you identified above, that is, what is your view of the matter and what reasons do you have for it? Here I want to see an argument of some kind, with an easily identifiable conclusion and supporting premises (reasons for your claim). I do not expect you to give me a valid argument (we would need more practice with logic to do that), but I think you’ve seen enough good argumentative style in the readings for you to give it a try.
Of the ethical theories we have surveyed, which, if any, best accounts for your reasoning in (2)? This need not be a separate paragraph, but I need to see that you’re applying one or more of the theories surveyed in the text.
The next section should contain a counter-argument to the conclusion you’re tried to establish in (2). As best you can, try to give one or more philosophical reasons for thinking that your favored view is false. That is, how would someone argue against the claims you’ve made in (2)? For example, someone might attack the truth of one of the premises you’ve used in part (2). This is actually a rather difficult thing for students to do, so here’s a strategy for getting started. After writing up (2) as best you can, take a day off. Then re-read what you wrote and think of how an ethicist (like you, for example) would respond to the argument. What are its weaknesses? Might one of the premises be false? Or might the theory that it uses to draw its conclusion be suspect in some way? The reason I want you to do this is that in good philosophy one needs to anticipate some objections, which your opponent will probably already have in mind. By responding to potential objections in the course of your paper you greatly strengthen your position (see below).
5. Next, write a paragraph that shows that the attempted refutation in (3) fails. You may attempt to strengthen the argument(s) you gave in (2), or you may attack the attempted counter-argument just as well. You’ll see that combining 2-4 is excellent practice in learning how to write good arguments.
Conclusion. In the last part of the paper, state your conclusion(s), for example, that ethical theory X shows that the best way to resolve the ethical issue you previously identified in (1) is Y.
Grammar, sentence mechanics and spelling will be worth 10% of your total grade, so please run a spell check on your document before submitting it to me.
I will be looking for clarity and precision in your writing, and that you have followed the structure I’ve outline above (this should ensure good organization for your paper). I also want to see that you have actually presented arguments, in the sense that I can tell in a general way how the conclusion is supposed to follow from the premises and other evidence you have presented. I will also grade you on how well you understand the issues you have chosen to address, and that you are correctly using ethical theories in your work (for example, if you claim something follows from utilitarianism, I need to be confident you actually understand that theory).
A 19-year-old woman is being treated for a serious kidney disease. She is currently on a dialysis machine, but treatment is steadily decreasing in efficacy. Before her condition declines any further, the physician suggests family members undergo tests to determine tissue compatibility to transplant a kidney. Only the brother shows a degree of compatibility high enough to be considered a candidate. The physician meets the brother alone to discuss the risks and benefits of the operation. Although agreeing to be tested, the brother decides not to donate a kidney after weighing the various alternatives because of the risks, and because, as he puts it, he doesn’t “feel he and his sister have ever been close enough that they would ever take that kind of a risk for each other.” The physician repeats a full explanation of the risks involved, and urges him to rethink his decision because of the serious nature of his sister’s illness with increasingly little time to spare. The brother remains adamant in his refusal.
In 1944 it became known to the Free French Partisan fighting forces that the Germans had executed 80 partisans and planned soon to execute more. The Partisans thus decided they would shoot 80 Germans prisoners who had recently surrendered to them. At this point the Red Cross intervened, won a postponement of the executions, and sought an agreement from the Germans to treat captured partisans as prisoners of war, who may not be shot. The Partisans waited 6 days and the Germans did not reply. The Partisans then shot 80 German prisoners. After these shootings the Nazis executed no more Partisans.
Papua New Guinea, an island nation in the Pacific, became an independent state twenty two years ago. It has only been a few decades since the tribes populating remote mountain regions of the island discovered they are not the only people on Earth. Village life in these areas still mostly follows ancient tribal traditions. Central to the tribal way of life, the compensation demanded when members of one clan kill the leader of another clan includes money, livestock, and a female clan member. Recently, for the first time in Papua New Guinea, a young woman, named Miriam Wilngal, refused to go along with the practice, fleeing instead to the home of relatives in Port Moresby, the capital of Papua New Guinea, more than three hundred miles from her village. Papua New Guinea has a legal system alongside of which the customary ancient tribal law coexists in an uncertain relationship. Ms. Wilngal went to court, represented by another woman, Ms. Susan Balen, who has broken with tradition to become a lawyer. Ms. Balen argued that the traditional tribal law can be challenged if it violates Papua New Guinea’s democratic constitution. A judge in a court forty miles from Ms. Wilngal’s village ruled in her favor. The elders of the aggrieved tribe are furious. They plan to take Ms. Wilngal’s clan to court, in effect using the modern legal system to demand their traditional tribal rights.
In the fall, 2002, the federal government of the United States instituted a new rule to the State Children’s Health Insurance Program (S-CHIP), allowing “unborn children” to qualify for health benefits. Supporters of this change maintained that it was an important step forward in improving prenatal care. This includes the fetuses of women who are illegal immigrants, although the women themselves and their immigrant children not born in the United States are not covered by such insurance. Proponents of the new ruling point out that, once these fetuses are born, they will be U. S. citizens if they are born in the United States.
Supporters of this rule say this is not a issue about abortion at all, but about prenatal care. Indeed, they maintain that abortion-rights activists who oppose this rule are in fact diminishing the quality of prenatal care that immigrant women would receive.
Two distinct issues became intertwined: the size and frequency of the downloads was sufficient to clog college and university networks, often interfering directly with the academic concerns that are primary to the mission of the educational institutions. In addition, students were often downloading files that they were not permitted to download—and were making use of the university’s internet connection to do so.
Administrators have reacted in various ways to this worsening situation. Some have added more bandwidth, often just to see it gobbled up as well. Others have been alerted by companies who felt their rights had been violated. For example, Warner Brothers contacted one college to inform them that one of their students had illegally downloaded a copy of a new Clint Eastwood movie. The Naval Academy, which has a strict honor code that prohibits stealing as well as cheating, confiscated nearly one hundred computers with unauthorized downloaded material on them. Cornell disciplined over fifty students for unauthorized downloading. Other institutions have treated the issue purely as a technical one and explored technical solutions such as limiting the amount of bandwidth a particular student could use at any one time, segregating dorms on the network from academic offices, giving lower priority to the types of files typically found on file-sharing sites, etc.
Mr. Jamison suffered a severe head injury in an accident and died without regaining consciousness soon after being brought to the emergency room. Upon his death, his wife requested postmortem sperm procurement, telling doctors that the couple had been trying desperately to conceive a child. Mr. Jamison had no advance directive stating, or implying, his wish to father a child, or specifying his agreement to this procedure in case of his death.
The hospital ethics committee noted that, under State law, the spouse of the deceased is the surrogate decision maker, and concluded, for this reason, that the decision rested with Mrs. Jamison. Mr. Jamison’s parents argued that their son would never have wished to father a child who would be raised with only one parent. Mrs. Jamison’s physician expressed the opinion that the Jamison’s efforts to conceive a child demonstrated Mr. Jamison’s desire that his wife have his child. The hospital’s social worker suggested that it would be unfair to bring a child into the world with only one parent. The hospital chaplain pointed out, however, that many children live in stable, loving single parent homes.
The hospital has the equipment to do the procedure and offers services for sperm collection and storage for various reasons, http://ukthesis.org/Thesis_Tips/ including posthumous fatherhood. However, it has no policy for this situation, where the father is not a competent participant in the consent process.
The medical staff is divided. Some feel that allowing the procedure respects Mr. Jamison’s wishes to father a child with his wife. Others believe it is wrong to be an agent of conception without the explicit consent of both parents.

写好一篇论文其实并不可怕,可怕的是看你如何从多方面的写作技巧掌握更多的经验来提高自身的能力。